The cornea is an outer protective layer of the eye serving as a barrier to dirt, germs, and other things that can cause damage. A damaged cornea due to diseases, infection, or an injury affect your vision.
The various conditions affecting the cornea are:
- Dry Eye Syndrome
Dry eye syndrome is caused due to a chronic lack of sufficient lubrication and moisture on the surface of the eye.
The consequences of the dry eye can range from constant eye irritation to significant inflammation and even scarring of the front surface of the eye.
Dry eyes are medically known as keratitis sicca meaning the decreased quality of tears.
Dry eyes also are described by the medical term, keratitis sicca, which generally means decreased quality or quantity of tears. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is used to describe a dry eye that affects both cornea and conjunctiva.
- Factors Affecting Dry Eye Syndrome
Computer and Smartphone Usage
Contact lens wear
Continuous exposure to air conditioner
Certain systemic diseases — such as diabetes, thyroid-associated diseases, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren's syndrome
Medications such as antihistamines, antidepressants, certain blood pressure medications and birth control pills
LASIK and other corneal refractive surgery
- Dry Eye Tests
Only an ophthalmologist can confirm dry eye syndrome after performing one or more dry eye tests during an eye exam.
Symptoms alone cannot indicate the presence and severity of the dry eye disease
Symptoms can vary from a person to person
- Treatment and Prevention
Routine use of artificial tears and minor behavioral modifications like taking frequent breaks during computer use
Keratoconus is a common corneal disorder where the central or paracentral cornea undergoes progressive thinning and steepening causing irregular astigmatism.
Keratoconus appears to be heredity and is a progressive disease
The fibres of protein in the eye know as Collagen hold the cornea in place and prevent it from bulging.
When these fibres become weak and are not able to hold the shape, the cornea becomes progressively more cone shaped.
It is common among the people with certain medical problems, including certain allergic conditions.
It is also related to chronic eye rubbing.
Most often, though, there is no eye injury or disease that can explain why it happened
- Risk Factors
Eye rubbing, associated with atopy
Floppy Lid Syndrome
A detailed examination by an ophthalmologist.
The general health of eye is assessed through appropriate ancillary tests to assess corneal curvature, astigmatism and thickness.
- Treatment When Keratoconus is the mildest form, eye glasses or soft contact lenses may help. Treatments for progressive keratoconus include:
Corneal cross-linking (CXL)
Custom soft contact lenses
Gas permeable contact lenses
"Piggybacking" contact lenses
Hybrid contact lenses
Scleral and semi-scleral lenses
Prosthetic contact lenses
Topography-guided conductive keratoplasty