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The cornea is an outer protective layer of the eye serving as a barrier to dirt, germs, and other things that can cause damage. A damaged cornea due to diseases, infection, or an injury affect your vision.

The various conditions affecting the cornea are:

  • Dry Eye Syndrome
  • Dry eye syndrome is caused due to a chronic lack of sufficient lubrication and moisture on the surface of the eye.

  • The consequences of the dry eye can range from constant eye irritation to significant inflammation and even scarring of the front surface of the eye.

  • Dry eyes are medically known as keratitis sicca meaning the decreased quality of tears.

  • Dry eyes also are described by the medical term, keratitis sicca, which generally means decreased quality or quantity of tears. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is used to describe a dry eye that affects both cornea and conjunctiva.

  • Factors Affecting Dry Eye Syndrome
  • Computer and Smartphone Usage

  • Contact lens wear

  • Ageing

  • Menopause

  • Continuous exposure to air conditioner

  • Arid Climates

  • Smoking

  • Certain systemic diseases — such as diabetes, thyroid-associated diseases, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren's syndrome

  • Medications such as antihistamines, antidepressants, certain blood pressure medications and birth control pills

  • Eyelid problems

  • LASIK and other corneal refractive surgery

  • Dry Eye Tests
  • Only an ophthalmologist can confirm dry eye syndrome after performing one or more dry eye tests during an eye exam.

  • Symptoms alone cannot indicate the presence and severity of the dry eye disease

  • Symptoms can vary from a person to person

  • Treatment and Prevention
  • Routine use of artificial tears and minor behavioral modifications like taking frequent breaks during computer use

  • Keratoconus
  • Keratoconus is a common corneal disorder where the central or paracentral cornea undergoes progressive thinning and steepening causing irregular astigmatism.

  • Keratoconus appears to be heredity and is a progressive disease

  • The fibres of protein in the eye know as Collagen hold the cornea in place and prevent it from bulging.

  • When these fibres become weak and are not able to hold the shape, the cornea becomes progressively more cone shaped.

  • It is common among the people with certain medical problems, including certain allergic conditions.

  • It is also related to chronic eye rubbing.

  • Most often, though, there is no eye injury or disease that can explain why it happened

  • Risk Factors
  • Eye rubbing, associated with atopy

  • Sleeping disorder

  • Floppy Lid Syndrome

  • Symptoms
  • A detailed examination by an ophthalmologist.

  • The general health of eye is assessed through appropriate ancillary tests to assess corneal curvature, astigmatism and thickness.

  • Treatment
  • When Keratoconus is the mildest form, eye glasses or soft contact lenses may help. Treatments for progressive keratoconus include:
  • Corneal cross-linking (CXL)

  • Custom soft contact lenses

  • Gas permeable contact lenses

  • "Piggybacking" contact lenses

  • Hybrid contact lenses

  • Scleral and semi-scleral lenses

  • Prosthetic contact lenses

  • Intacs

  • Topography-guided conductive keratoplasty

  • Corneal transplant