Retina, located at the back of the eye, converts light into signals that can be interpreted in the brain. It is the sensory membrane that that lines the inner surface of the back of the eyeball. It is composed of the several layers including the one which contains specialized cells called photoreceptors.
There are a wide variety of retina problems, conditions, and diseases. Some of these issues are:
- Macular degeneration
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common and serious age-related eye disease
The health of the macula determines our ability to read, recognize faces, drive, watch television, use a computer, and perform any other visual task that requires us to see fine detail
It affects the centre of the retina called macula
The vision decreases over the time and may cause distorted vision.
The centre of the field of vision becomes dark as spots and patches
AMD is common among the older population
AMD can be dry macular degeneration or wet macular degeneration.
- Diabetic retinopathy
One of the consequences of diabetes is that it can damage the blood vessels that supply and nourish the retina
This can lead to the significant vision loss
It can be prevented by routine eye examinations by the ophthalmologist, early detection, proper management of your diabetes
- Macular Edema
Macular Edema refers to the accumulation of fluid and swelling of the macula which causes distortion and blurred central vision
Macular edema has several causes, including diabetes
In some cases, swelling of the macula can occur after cataract surgery.
- Central serous retinopathy
When fluid builds up under the central retina vision is distorted
The cause of central serous retinopathy is unknown
It affects men in their 30s to 50s more frequently than women, and stress appears to be a major risk factor.
- Hypertensive retinopathy
Chronic high blood pressure can damage the tiny blood vessels that nourish the retina
This can lead to significant vision problems.
Risk factors include high blood pressure, including obesity, lack of physical activity, eating too much salt, a family history of hypertension and a stressful lifestyle.
- Solar Retinopathy
Solar retinopathy is the damage to the macula due to staring at the sun
This causes a permanent blind spot (scotoma) in the visual field.
The risk of solar retinopathy is greatest when viewing a solar eclipse without adequate eye protection.
- Detached Retina
A retinal detachment is pulling away from the retina from the underlying choroid layer of the eye that provides its nourishment
It is a medical emergency.
The retina must be reattached surgically as soon as possible
Failing to do so can cause permanent and worsening vision loss